Short Courses in Natural Sciences & Mathematics

Biology

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Find out more information about Biology

Biology is a natural science, together with chemistry and physics, and it is taught in schools of all levels. This field explores all living and non-living forms of life, from microorganisms to plants, animals and humans. Biology sub-disciplines focus on species and groups of organisms and offer an in-depth study of their growth and evolution, origin, actions and distribution around the world.

Zoology, biophysics, anthropology, histology and ecology are only some of the specializations that students choose for a Master’s degree in biology. Others may enrol in a degree programme that focuses on the foundations of modern biology, such as cell theory, evolution, genetics, homeostasis and energy. While classic biology had the cell as a centre point, today the focus of attention is on energy, as a mechanism of survival for organisms.

Graduates of a Master degree in biology enter a competitive employment market, where practical experience plays a major role. They are able to find jobs as higher education lecturers, pharmacologists, research scientists or science writers.

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Suggested Short Courses in Biology

Short Course Applications of Fluorescence in the Life Sciences

Fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy have become common techniques in cell biology and biophysics. This is due to the incredibly high sensitivity and selectivity of fluorescence, combined with its non-invasive nature. The Applications of Fluorescence in the Life Sciences course is offered at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Netherlands
Short Course Nature and Nurture - Twin Research and Human Genetics

Thanks to recent technological advances, we are closer than ever to explaining where our individual differences come from. Our ability to map human DNA at high resolution in large populations is now enabling us to link genetic variation to traits and disease at the molecular level. The Nature and Nurture - Twin Research and Human Genetics course is offered by Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Netherlands
Specialization Bioinformatics

Although this Bioinformatics Specialization offered by Coursera in partnership with UC San Diego centers on computational topics, you do not need to know how to program in order to complete it. 

United States

Top Ranked Universities in Biology on ShortCoursesPortal

Universities Location Times Higher Education Ranking (2018) Life sciences Shanghai Jiao Tong University Ranking (2017) Biological Sciences QS Rankings (2018) Biological Sciences Best Global Universities Rankings (2018) Biology and Biochemistry
Cambridge, United States 1 1 1 1
Cambridge, United Kingdom 2 3 2 6
Oxford, United Kingdom 3 17 3 7
Stanford, United States 4 6 5 4
Cambridge, United States 5 2 4 2
Baltimore, United States 6 9 6 9
Princeton, United States 7 44 101 51
Pasadena, United States 8 28 115 31
New Haven, United States 9 10 10 16
London, United Kingdom 10 39 12 21
Chicago, United States 11 47 37 24
San Diego, United States 12 32 16 8
Zürich, Switzerland 13 76 51 18
Ithaca, United States 14 31 25 10
New York City, United States 15 11 26 15
Durham, United States 16 45 19 23
Philadelphia, United States 17 29 23 19
Berkeley, United States 18 16 14 3
Los Angeles, United States 19 15 8 11
Wageningen, Netherlands 20 101 82 54
Vancouver, Canada 21 51 28 33
Toronto, Canada 22 20 15 13
Beijing, China 23 101 51 58
Edinburgh, United Kingdom 23 49 21 37
Stockholm, Sweden 25 14 7 26
Singapore, Singapore 26 50 20 32
Ann Arbor, United States 27 34 31 11
Davis, United States 28 51 57 34
Saint Louis, United States 29 40 33 27
London, United Kingdom 30 21 18 78
Montréal, Canada 31 51 28 41
Lausanne, Switzerland 33 - 94 63
Heidelberg, Germany 34 51 41 42
Brisbane, Australia 34 51 32 46
Tokyo, Japan 36 48 22 25
Kyoto, Japan 37 23 40 40
Uppsala, Sweden 38 51 49 52
München, Germany 39 41 44 30
Madison, United States 40 51 58 28
Hong Kong, Hong Kong (SAR) 41 151 34 134
Evanston, United States 42 76 74 50
München, Germany 43 76 81 65
Gent, Belgium 44 76 85 71
Canberra, Australia 45 201 85 176
Lund, Sweden 46 51 88 101
Sydney, Australia 47 51 17 92
Atlanta, United States 48 76 73 76
Glasgow, United Kingdom 49 76 48 103
Mitte, Germany 50 76 200 65
Manchester, United Kingdom 51 51 50 47
Minneapolis, United States 51 - 75 -
Paris, France 53 35 94 35
Chapel Hill, United States 54 13 38 38
Dundee, United Kingdom 55 101 136 81
Austin, United States 55 201 145 106
Santa Barbara, United States 57 301 293 170
Osaka-shi, Japan 58 151 68 70
Utrecht, Netherlands 59 43 60 59
Göttingen, Germany 60 151 128 94
Genève, Switzerland 61 76 60 74
Leuven, Belgium 62 51 66 55
Helsinki, Finland 63 51 68 64
Tübingen, Germany 64 76 108 112
Stockholm, Sweden 65 201 222 110
Urbana, United States 66 24 171 35
Lausanne, Switzerland 67 76 90 88
Zürich (Kreis 1), Switzerland 68 19 43 22
South Perth, Australia 69 30 55 140
Freiburg, Germany 70 101 102 119
Boulder, United States 71 101 210 44
St Andrews, United Kingdom 72 201 345 363
University Park, United States 73 76 125 73
East Lansing, United States 74 151 149 92
Paris, France 75 - - -
Bristol, United Kingdom 76 76 62 122
Dublin, Ireland 77 101 157 171
Groningen, Netherlands 78 51 97 90
Aberdeen, United Kingdom 79 151 157 218
Daejeon, South Korea 80 - 220 124
Bonn, Germany 81 76 139 145
Exeter, United Kingdom 82 101 243 204
Nashville, United States 82 22 84 57
Hefei, China 84 401 295 224
Aarhus, Denmark 85 76 58 82
Hong Kong, Hong Kong (SAR) 86 - 287 311
College Park, United States 87 151 162 108
Berlin Steglitz, Germany 88 76 213 53
Norwich, United Kingdom 89 201 270 238
Leeds, United Kingdom 89 101 130 163
Basel, Switzerland 91 76 64 69
Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom 92 101 119 160
Sydney, Australia 93 101 44 108
York, United Kingdom 93 201 183 230
Vienna, Austria 95 151 240 90
Riverside, United States 96 201 348 240
Tempe Junction, United States 97 151 238 138
Notting Hill, Australia 97 101 28 76
Gainesville, United States 99 101 97 103
Providence, United States 100 201 90 180
Palaiseau, France 101 - - -
Shanghai, China 101 101 88 96
Townsville, Australia 101 201 313 -
Moscow, Russia 101 - 101 178
Maastricht, Netherlands 101 201 105 237
Hamilton, Canada 101 151 55 155
Columbus, United States 101 76 97 85
Corvallis, United States 101 201 327 227
Orsay, France 101 76 170 132
Namyangju, South Korea 101 - 356 296
Houston, United States 101 401 401 258
Seoul, South Korea 101 101 35 61
Uppsala, Sweden 101 201 287 242
Copenhagen, Denmark 101 101 280 68
Dresden, Germany 101 101 180 106
Adelaide, Australia 101 151 79 197
Edmonton, Canada 101 151 90 101
Birmingham, United Kingdom 101 101 76 173
Irvine, United States 101 101 - 131
Santa Cruz, United States 101 151 396 97
Köln, Germany 101 101 174 211
Montréal, Canada 101 76 76 165
Nottingham, United Kingdom 101 37 70 168
Sheffield, United Kingdom 101 151 113 145
Würzburg, Germany 101 101 192 118
Aberystwyth, United Kingdom 126 401 - -
Cardiff, United Kingdom 126 32 108 263
Hanover, United States 126 201 184 260
Jerusalem, Israel 126 101 142 119
Bloomington, United States 126 201 281 128
Ames, United States 126 201 243 148
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 126 101 338 88
Nagoya, Japan 126 201 143 187
London, United Kingdom 126 76 96 189
Nijmegen, Netherlands 126 51 123 -
London, United Kingdom 126 401 401 -
Stony Brook, United States 126 151 379 174
Umeå, Sweden 126 101 213 201
Barcelona, Spain 126 51 78 87
Cape Town, South Africa 126 201 105 252
Reykjavik, Iceland 126 51 - -
Konstanz, Germany 126 301 401 319
Boston, United States 126 - 401 -
Oslo, Norway 126 76 93 157
Reading, United Kingdom 126 - 327 -
São Paulo, Brazil 126 76 129 80
Tartu, Estonia 126 101 396 -
Hobart, Australia 126 201 305 -
Coventry, United Kingdom 126 201 222 168
Amsterdam, Netherlands 126 51 175 119
Hangzhou, China 126 151 180 149
Durham, United Kingdom 151 - 368 -
Lyon, France 151 201 351 333
Frankfurt am Main, Germany 151 151 - 123
Lancaster, United Kingdom 151 - 451 -
Nanjing, China 151 301 240 279
Belfast, United Kingdom 151 151 202 373
London, United Kingdom 151 - 451 -
New Brunswick, United States 151 - 266 94
Pisa, Italy 151 - - -
Sendai-shi, Japan 151 201 126 136
Ulm, Germany 151 101 257 327
Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium 151 201 105 183
Cork, Ireland 151 301 192 242
Tucson, United States 151 151 188 158
Auckland, New Zealand 151 151 62 183
Bergen, Norway 151 151 211 240
Bern, Switzerland 151 201 121 167
Bremen, Germany 151 401 - -
Newark, United States 151 301 351 309
Liverpool, United Kingdom 151 101 120 223
Eugene, United States 151 301 396 -
Strasbourg, France 151 38 217 78
Salt Lake City, United States 151 36 203 111
Charlottesville, United States 151 101 192 113
Barcelona, Spain 176 151 157 217
Bangor, United Kingdom 176 - 451 -
Delft, Netherlands 176 301 336 230
Washington, D. C., United States 176 201 216 355
Sapporo, Japan 176 201 145 180
Melbourne, Australia 176 301 318 341
Sydney, Australia 176 301 345 319
Montpellier, France 176 101 154 113
Raleigh, United States 176 201 233 229
Plymouth, United Kingdom 176 201 - -
Brisbane, Australia 176 301 266 388
Seoul, South Korea 176 301 134 183
College Station, United States 176 201 186 134
Medford, United States 176 151 136 126
Brussels, Belgium 176 201 192 249
Dublin, Ireland 176 201 145 296
Antwerpen, Belgium 176 151 184 337
Bayreuth, Germany 176 - 401 -
Bordeaux, France 176 301 339 -
Göteborg, Sweden 176 42 108 99
Göteborg, Sweden 176 - - -
Hamburg, Germany 176 101 151 151
Honolulu, United States 176 401 395 -
Dunedin, New Zealand 176 201 66 215
Potsdam, Germany 176 401 451 -
Rochester, United States 176 201 196 162
Marseille, France 201 101 228 71
Madrid, Spain 201 301 217 252
Waltham, United States 201 401 401 -
Cleveland, United States 201 151 172 139
Darwin, Australia 201 - - -
Fort Collins, United States 201 201 313 230
Grenoble, France 201 151 331 143
Bangalore, India 201 - 151 296
Mainz, Germany 201 201 257 191
Tokyo, Japan 201 301 148 218
Fukuoka, Japan 201 201 133 182
Ottawa, Canada 201 151 168 215
Palmerston North, New Zealand 201 301 295 379
Taipei, Taiwan 201 201 44 197
Hsinchu, Taiwan 201 - 360 -
Flagstaff, United States 201 401 - -
Paris, France 201 101 186 193
Bochum, Germany 201 301 341 363
Saint Petersburg, Russia 201 - 351 -
San Diego, United States 201 401 - -
Burnaby, Canada 201 201 359 266
Stellenbosch, South Africa 201 301 307 386
Haifa, Israel 201 201 310 262
Tel Aviv Yaffo, Israel 201 101 222 99
Tokyo, Japan 201 401 321 249
Bath, United Kingdom 201 401 389 345
Calgary, Canada 201 151 115 177
Christchurch, New Zealand 201 - 401 -
Joensuu, Finland 201 151 230 317
Fribourg, Switzerland 201 401 - -
Ostfildern, Germany 201 401 401 -
Innsbruck, Austria 201 401 - -
Iowa City, United States 201 101 172 208
Canterbury, United Kingdom 201 401 - -
Kiel, Germany 201 101 203 288
Leicester, United Kingdom 201 101 176 275
South Miami, United States 201 151 162 273
Missoula, United States 201 401 - -
Neuchâtel, Switzerland 201 - - -
Padua, Italy 201 151 156 125
Tarragona, Spain 201 401 - -
Odense, Denmark 201 201 266 192
Stirling, United Kingdom 201 - - -
Brighton, United Kingdom 201 301 401 346
Sydney, Australia 201 - 379 -
Trento, Italy 201 401 - -
Turku, Finland 201 151 260 260
Victoria, Canada 201 - - -
Winston-Salem, United States 201 151 252 283
Pullman, United States 201 201 284 268
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 251 - - -
Bielefeld, Germany 251 401 351 325
Newton, United States 251 301 351 -
Lyon, France 251 101 191 143
Halifax, Canada 251 301 207 288
Geelong, Australia 251 401 235 -
Dublin, Ireland 251 - 401 -
Toulouse, France 251 - - -
Southport, Australia 251 201 284 335
Seoul, South Korea 251 401 310 -
Hasselt, Belgium 251 - - -
Edinburgh, United Kingdom 251 - - -
Mumbai, India 251 - 301 -
Seoul, South Korea 251 401 143 265
Loughborough, United Kingdom 251 - - -
Ancona, Italy 251 401 - -
St. John's, Canada 251 401 - -
Perth, Australia 251 401 451 -
Galway, Ireland 251 301 248 -
Roma, Italy 251 151 161 149
East Lismore, Australia 251 - - -
Campinas, Brazil 251 401 230 245
Tokyo, Japan 251 301 166 359
Tromsø, Norway 251 201 401 -
Versailles, France 251 - - -
Québec, Canada 251 - 374 -
Fairbanks, United States 251 - - -
Cincinnati, United States 251 201 235 183
Coimbra, Portugal 251 301 375 311
Storrs, United States 251 201 274 275
Rethymno, Greece 251 - 401 -
Chengdu, China 251 - - -
Athens, United States 251 151 260 132
Graz, Austria 251 301 451 335
Hull, United Kingdom 251 401 451 -
Chicago, United States 251 201 - 152
Kaiserslautern, Germany 251 - - -
Liège, Belgium 251 201 248 279
Macao, Macao (SAR) 251 - - -
Marburg, Germany 251 301 270 227
Milano, Italy 251 101 80 154
Milano, Italy 251 301 341 -
Lincoln, United States 251 301 401 245
Pavia, Italy 251 301 289 -
Pisa, Italy 251 301 279 370
Split, Croatia 251 201 - -
Knoxville, United States 251 301 307 267
Wollongong, Australia 251 - 401 -
Brussels, Belgium 251 201 277 85
Sydney, Australia 251 - 396 -
Aligarh, India 301 - - -
Auckland, New Zealand 301 - - -
Beersheba, Israel 301 401 383 303
Clermont-Ferrand, France 301 - - -
Wuhan, China 301 - - -
Prague, Czech Republic 301 201 226 220
Beijing, China 301 201 360 258
Madrid, Spain 301 301 213 327
Omaha, United States 301 - - -
Shanghai, China 301 - 401 -
Shangyu, China 301 - 451 388
Maylands, Australia 301 - - -
Budapest, Hungary 301 - 401 -
Fuzhou, China 301 - - -
Fairfax, United States 301 - - -
Gwangju, South Korea 301 - - -
New Delhi, India 301 - 301 394
Gießen, Germany 301 301 319 314
Manhattan, United States 301 301 401 -
Keele, United Kingdom 301 - - -
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 301 201 243 211
Christchurch, New Zealand 301 - - -
Liverpool, United Kingdom 301 401 - -
Baton Rouge, United States 301 201 364 327
Bang Yai, Thailand 301 201 115 323
Brno, Czech Republic 301 301 451 286
Milwaukee, United States 301 301 336 294
Bozeman, United States 301 401 - -
Monterrey, Mexico 301 - - -
Athens, Greece 301 201 248 383
Mexico City, Mexico 301 201 176 204
Hsinchu, Taiwan 301 - 451 -
Ås, Norway 301 301 - -
Valencia, Spain 301 - - -
Santiago, Chile 301 401 227 368
Kingston, Canada 301 401 203 -
Budapest VIII. kerület, Hungary 301 301 262 383
Taipei, Taiwan 301 301 - 391
Guangzhou, China 301 - 451 379
Guangzhou, China 301 101 196 188
Darmstadt, Germany 301 - 451 -
Tokyo, Japan 301 - 401 -
Besançon, France 301 - - -
Sherbrooke, Canada 301 401 401 -
Buffalo, United States 301 401 220 272
Aveiro, Portugal 301 401 - 360
Bologna, Italy 301 201 - 204
Canberra, Australia 301 - - -
Catania, Italy 301 - 451 -
Santiago, Chile 301 301 233 346
Colchester, United Kingdom 301 - - -
Ferrara, Italy 301 301 - -
Florence, Italy 301 201 207 115
Genoa, Italy 301 301 353 -
Greifswald, Germany 301 201 - 369
Houston, United States 301 401 451 -
Jyväskylä, Finland 301 401 - -
Lille, France 301 - - -
Limerick, Ireland 301 - - -
Lisbon, Portugal 301 201 257 214
Nancy, France 301 401 - 363
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 301 301 164 -
Winnipeg, Canada 301 201 248 296
Baltimore Highlands, United States 301 - 281 -
Columbia, United States 301 201 300 235
Modena, Italy 301 301 401 -
Omaha, United States 301 - - -
Newcastle, Australia 301 301 168 -
Greensboro, United States 301 - - -
Norman, United States 301 401 364 -
Ottawa, Canada 301 151 157 204
Oviedo, Spain 301 301 - -
Parma, Italy 301 401 401 -
Porto, Portugal 301 201 278 268
Pretoria, South Africa 301 301 383 -
Roma, Italy 301 301 293 355
Lecce, Italy 301 - - -
Saskatoon, Canada 301 301 360 355
Siena, Italy 301 301 451 363
Columbia, United States 301 - 401 -
Stuttgart, Germany 301 - 351 -
Guildford, United Kingdom 301 - 401 -
Helotes, United States 301 - 401 -
Toledo, United States 301 - - -
Trieste, Italy 301 301 451 -
Tsukuba, Japan 301 301 240 291
Turin, Italy 301 201 189 270
Valencia, Spain 301 201 289 340
Warsaw, Poland 301 - 351 294
Verona, Italy 301 201 348 -
Melbourne, Australia 301 - - -
Blacksburg, United States 301 301 353 230
Detroit, United States 301 201 401 199
London, Canada 301 201 153 -
Williamsburg, United States 301 - - -
Wuhan, China 301 301 330 201
Xiamen, China 301 301 401 292
Yokohama, Japan 301 401 451 -
Seoul, South Korea 301 201 85 193
Toronto, Canada 301 - 451 -
Poznan, Poland 401 - - -
Suwon, South Korea 401 - 451 -
Beirut, Lebanon 401 - 401 -
Annamalainagar, India 401 - - -
Thessaloníki, Greece 401 301 325 352
Taichung, Taiwan 401 - - -
Auburn, United States 401 - - -
Valdivia, Chile 401 - - -
Cluj-Napoca, Romania 401 - - -
Ramat Gan, Israel 401 - - -
London Borough of Harrow, United Kingdom 401 - - -
Taoyuan City, Taiwan 401 401 235 -
Chiba, Japan 401 - 341 -
Dalian, China 401 - 451 -
Ebetsu, Japan 401 - - -
Belo Oriente, Brazil 401 - 315 323
University Park, United States 401 - - -
Atlanta, United States 401 - - -
Hiroshima, Japan 401 401 307 386
Wuhan, China 401 201 - 308
Wuhan, China 401 201 327 208
Gubbi, India 401 - - -
Roorkee, India 401 - - -
Isfahan, Iran 401 - - -
Istanbul, Turkey 401 401 345 -
Kraków, Poland 401 401 388 282
Guangzhou, China 401 - - -
Tokyo, Japan 401 - - -
Takamatsu, Japan 401 - - -
Kanazawa, Japan 401 - 348 397
Kaohsiung City, Taiwan 401 - 401 -
Kazan, Russia 401 - - -
Kobe, Japan 401 401 300 275
Seoul, South Korea 401 - 401 373
Kumamoto, Japan 401 - 351 -
Kuwait City, Kuwait 401 - - -
Hannover, Germany 401 - - -
Kampala, Uganda 401 - 451 -
Manchester, United Kingdom 401 - - -
Nagasaki, Japan 401 - 401 -
Nanjing, China 401 301 451 -
Taoyuan City, Taiwan 401 - - -
Keelung, Taiwan 401 - - -
Taipei, Taiwan 401 401 149 -
Las Cruces, United States 401 - - -
Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom 401 - - -
Xianyang, China 401 401 - -
Okayama, Japan 401 - 360 350
Stillwater, United States 401 - - -
Olomouc, Czech Republic 401 301 - 396
Chandigarh, India 401 - - -
Porto Alegre, Brazil 401 - - -
Islamabad, Pakistan 401 - - -
Saint Louis, United States 401 401 451 -
Saitama, Japan 401 - - -
São Paulo, Brazil 401 401 366 -
Pune, India 401 - - -
Nanjing, China 401 - 451 375
Muscat, Oman 401 - - -
Lubbock, United States 401 - - -
Tokyo, Japan 401 - 351 -
Shanghai, China 401 301 401 290
Coleraine, United Kingdom 401 - 451 -
Al Ain, United Arab Emirates 401 - - -
Alcalá de Henares, Spain 401 - 451 -
Faro, Portugal 401 - - -
Alicante, Spain 401 - - -
Almería, Spain 401 - - -
Fayetteville, United States 401 - - -
Bari, Italy 401 301 392 -
Brasília, Brazil 401 - 451 -
Bucharest, Romania 401 - - -
Cagliari, Italy 401 - - -
Rende, Italy 401 - - -
Kolkata, India 401 - - -
Granada, Spain 401 401 341 296
Haifa, Israel 401 - - -
Durban, South Africa 401 - 389 -
Ljubljana, Slovenia 401 401 451 273
Palermo, Italy 401 - - -
Patras, Greece 401 - 451 -
Portsmouth, United Kingdom 401 - - -
Salamanca, Spain 401 401 401 -
Salford, United Kingdom 401 - - -
Santiago de Compostela, Spain 401 301 451 341
Sevilla, Spain 401 401 401 -
Vermillion, United States 401 - - -
West Hattiesburg, United States 401 - - -
Brisbane, Australia 401 - - -
Vigo, Spain 401 - - -
Windsor, Canada 401 - - -
Zaragoza, Spain 401 401 451 -
Tokyo, Japan 401 - 401 363
Xi'an, China 401 401 400 -
San Francisco, United States - 4 9 5
Seattle, United States - 5 23 14
London, United Kingdom - 7 11 20
New York City, United States - 8 83 29
Dallas, United States - 12 97 48
Worcester, United States - 18 151 160
Gjøvik, Norway - 25 303 346
Copenhagen, Denmark - 26 27 17
Houston, United States - 27 321 -
Melbourne, Australia - 45 13 43
Rotterdam, Netherlands - 50 51 172
Mitte, Germany - 101 - 84
Hannover, Germany - 101 127 242
Manhattan, United States - 101 154 159
London, United Kingdom - 101 38 -
Barcelona, Spain - 101 400 163
Tokyo, Japan - 101 351 -
Baltimore, United States - 101 - 98
Münster, Germany - 101 200 252
Oulu, Finland - 101 324 360
Southampton, United Kingdom - 101 104 196
Tel Aviv Yaffo, Israel - 101 196 61
New York City, United States - 101 - 147
Indianapolis, United States - 151 - 156
Tokyo, Japan - 151 - -
Graz, Austria - 151 270 283
Portland, United States - 151 - 136
London Borough of Sutton, United Kingdom - 151 229 -
Syracuse, United States - 151 - -
Lausanne, Switzerland - 151 - -
Beijing, China - 151 130 49
Birmingham, United States - 151 166 116
Düsseldorf, Germany - 151 196 193
Essen, Germany - 151 263 349
Erlangen, Germany - 151 179 178
Lawrence, United States - 151 243 302
Leipzig, Germany - 151 219 211
Lübeck, Germany - 151 - -
Tampere, Finland - 151 401 -
Taichung, Taiwan - 201 252 -
Washington, D. C., United States - 201 211 220
Atlanta, United States - 201 274 126
Innsbruck, Austria - 201 - -
Vienna, Austria - 201 132 175
Paris, France - 201 - -
Nanjing, China - 201 - -
Singapore, Singapore - 201 123 128
Toulouse, France - 201 353 -
West Lafayette, United States - 201 164 130
Aachen, Germany - 201 139 230
Jinan, China - 201 392 199
Chengdu, China - 201 331 238
Hong Kong, Hong Kong (SAR) - 201 65 305
Albuquerque, United States - 201 263 275
San Antonio, United States - 201 - -
Guelph, Canada - 201 252 287
Halle, Germany - 201 389 313
Jena, Germany - 201 305 189
Lexington, United States - 201 281 317
Oxford, United States - 201 - -
Naples, Italy - 201 232 225
Regensburg, Germany - 201 300 314
University, United States - 201 238 293
Évry, France - 201 - -
Richmond, United States - 201 351 208
Milano, Italy - 201 367 -
Aalborg, Denmark - 301 401 -
Helsinki, Finland - 301 - -
Paris, France - 301 - 255
London, United Kingdom - 301 451 -
Beijing, China - 301 - -
Pittsburgh, United States - 301 319 263
Milano, Italy - 301 180 -
Changsha, China - 301 383 322
Paris, France - 301 201 220
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 301 - 248
Adelaide, Australia - 301 315 -
Tallahassee, United States - 301 378 249
Karlsruhe, Germany - 301 401 279
Thuwal, Saudi Arabia - 301 351 -
Stockholm, Sweden - 301 451 165
Linköping, Sweden - 301 284 -
Charleston, United States - 301 - 283
Lisbon, Portugal - 301 401 330
Boston, United States - 301 401 310
Dublin, Ireland - 301 401 -
Chicago, United States - 301 - -
Saarbrücken, Germany - 301 392 330
Galveston, United States - 301 - 339
Philadelphia, United States - 301 - 236
New Orleans, United States - 301 321 -
Belgrade, Serbia - 301 - 325
Buenos Aires, Argentina - 301 207 245
Dijon, France - 301 - -
Denver, United States - 301 136 -
Amherst Center, United States - 301 315 203
Pamplona, Spain - 301 310 -
Nice, France - 301 451 341
Rennes, France - 301 - 397
Johannesburg, South Africa - 301 247 -
Burlington, United States - 301 368 -
Vienna, Austria - 301 - -
Zagreb, Croatia - 301 387 -
Augusta, United States - 401 - 352
Brescia, Italy - 401 451 -
Provo, United States - 401 451 -
Göteborg, Sweden - 401 351 152
Gwangju, South Korea - 401 383 390
Seoul, South Korea - 401 356 360
Rio Grande, Brazil - 401 333 355
Nanjing, China - 401 - 392
Istanbul, Turkey - 401 375 -
Harbin, China - 401 - -
Saint-Étienne, France - 401 - -
Jilin City, China - 401 401 333
Seoul, South Korea - 401 - -
Evanston, United States - 401 401 -
Tianjin, China - 401 401 371
Tainan, Taiwan - 401 222 257
Maynooth, Ireland - 401 - -
Örebro, Sweden - 401 - -
Paris, France - 401 - -
Hangzhou, China - 401 - -
Philadelphia, United States - 401 333 301
Temple, United States - 401 - -
Tianjin, China - 401 - -
Louisville, United States - 401 - 321
Magdeburg, Germany - 401 - -
Nantes, France - 401 451 -
Vienna, Austria - 401 451 270
South Bend, United States - 401 301 371
Oklahoma City, United States - 401 - -
Perpignan, France - 401 - -
Perugia, Italy - 401 401 -
Adelaide, Australia - 401 292 -
Budweis, Czech Republic - 401 - -
Ulsan, South Korea - 401 303 -
Laramie, United States - 401 - -
Vilnius, Lithuania - 401 - -
Morgantown, United States - 401 - -
Houston, United States - 51 54 59
Boston, United States - 51 41 74
Leiden, Netherlands - 51 71 83
Amsterdam, Netherlands - 51 35 141
Minneapolis, United States - 51 - 65
Pittsburgh, United States - 51 71 55
Los Angeles, United States - 51 115 45
New York City, United States - 76 44 39
Shanghai, China - 76 108 103
Paris, France - 76 121 142
Houston, United States - - 102 -
Frankfurt am Main, Germany - - 113 -
Irvine, United States - - 134 -
Bologna, Italy - - 108 -
Bangkok, Thailand - - 203 -
Seoul, South Korea - - 252 303
George Town, Malaysia - - 269 -
Taichung, Taiwan - - 401 -
Kampung Baru Subang, Malaysia - - 295 -
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia - - 289 -
Kowloon, Hong Kong (SAR) - - 451 -
Mexico City, Mexico - - 401 -
New York City, United States - - 325 -
Debrecen, Hungary - - 401 -
Richardson, United States - - 368 -
Waterloo, Canada - - 372 378
Beijing, China - - 382 -
Braunschweig, Germany - - 351 351
Cairo, Egypt - - 295 -
Daegu, South Korea - - 375 393
Busan, South Korea - - 356 -
Shanghai, China - - 451 -
Taipei, Taiwan - - 178 -
Hong Kong, Hong Kong (SAR) - - 372 -
Tuscaloosa, United States - - 274 -
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia - - 351 -
Chiang Mai, Thailand - - 371 -
Seoul, South Korea - - 401 -
Philadelphia, United States - - 401 -
Chennai, India - - 401 -
Khargapur, India - - 401 -
Bangkok, Thailand - - 451 -
Rochester, United States - - 189 -
Melbourne, Australia - - 451 -
Szeged, Hungary - - 451 375
Varanasi, India - - 451 -
Seoul, South Korea - - 339 -
Jeonju, South Korea - - 401 375
Seoul, South Korea - - 401 -
Eindhoven, Netherlands - - 451 -
Curitiba, Brazil - - 451 -
Vitorino Freire, Brazil - - 451 -
Harbin, China - - 451 225
Kanpur, India - - 451 -
Taipei, Taiwan - - 451 -
Akademgorodok, Russia - - 451 -
Oxford, United Kingdom - - 451 -
Tokushima, Japan - - 451 -
Bogotá, Colombia - - 451 -
Orlando, United States - - 451 -
Beijing, China - - 451 -
Braga, Portugal - - 451 314
Glasgow, United Kingdom - - 451 -
Wellington, New Zealand - - 451 -
Sydney, Australia - - 335 -
Malmö, Sweden - - 381 -
Niigata, Japan - - 401 -
Tehran, Iran - - 401 395
Karachi, Pakistan - - 401 -
Berlin, Germany - - 401 341
Bagong Pagasa, Philippines - - 401 -
Cairo, Egypt - - 451 -
Alexandria, Egypt - - 451 -
Florianópolis, Brazil - - 451 -
Kagoshima, Japan - - 451 -
Khon Kaen, Thailand - - 451 -
Osaka-shi, Japan - - 451 -
Hat Yai, Thailand - - 451 -
Jakarta, Indonesia - - 451 -
Rostock, Germany - - 451 -
Enschede, Netherlands - - 451 -
Nijmegen, Netherlands - - - 116
City of Langley, Canada - - - 256
Lejona, Spain - - - 305
Tehran, Iran - - - 352
Cordova, Spain - - - 381
Graz, Austria - - - 382
Lafayette, United States - - - 385
Beijing, China - - - 399